UJI AKTIVITAS MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn) TERHADAP BAKTERI PENYEBAB KARIES GIGI

Murniana Murniana, Nurmala Hayati, Mustanir Mustanir

Abstract


Penelitian antimikrobia dan identifikasi senyawa aktif dalam minyak atsiri daun sirih (Piper betle Linn) telah dilakukan. Karies gigi terjadi karena adanya plak, sehingga perlu upaya pencegahan timbulnya plak.  Daun sirih dapat berfungsi sebagai antiseptik dan dapat mengurangi terjadinya pembentukan plak dengan cara menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri.  Daun sirih didestilasi menghasilkan minyak atsiri sebanyak 33,85 gram (0,21 %). Destilat dipisahkan dengan kromatografi vakum cair (KVC) dan didapatkan 6 fraksi yaitu A, B, D, F, G and L. Fraksi yang diperoleh diuji aktivitas antimikrobial terhadap bakteri penyebab karies gigi. Hasil uji aktivitas antibakteri menunjukkan bahwa fraksi F lebih aktif dibanding fraksi lainnya dan juga terhadap minyak  atsirinya dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus kaesal dan Actinomyces viscosus. Analisis dengan KG-SM menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri daun sirih fraksi A, B, D, F, G, dan L mengandung komponen utama yang berbeda yaitu fraksi A (sikloheksana 10,4 %), fraksi B (naftalena 17,6 %), fraksi D (eugenil asetat 33,3 %), fraksi F (eugenol 35,6 %), fraksi G (kavikol 15,5 %) dan asam laurat 9,6 %).

 

Kata Kunci: Minyak atsiri daun sirih, S. mutans, L. kaesal, A. viscosus

 

ABSTRACT

The research  of antimicrobial influence and identification of the essential oil’s active compounds on piper (Piper betle Linn) leaves was performed. Dental plaque formation initiated dental caries, therefore it should be prevented. Piper betle Linn, as an antiseptic agent, could decrease dental plaque formation by inhibiting activities of the bacteria. Distillation of piper leaves produced 33.85 gram (0.21%) of essential oil. The destilate was treated with vacuum liquid chromatography and gave 6 fractions, there were fractions A, B, D, F, G and L. The fractions were tested their antibacteria to against dental bacteria caries. Fraction F indicated was more active than the others fraction, even compared to its crude essential oil to inhibite S. mutans, L. kaesal and A. viscosus. All the fractions were elucidated using Gas Chromatograhy-Mass Spectrometer and indicated that the samples contained cyclohexane 10.4 % (fraction A), naphthalene 17.6 % (fraction B), eugenil acetate 33.3 % (fraction D), eugenol 35.6 % (fraction F), cavicol 15.5 % (fraction G) and lauric acid 9.6 % (fraction L) as the main component.

 

Keywords: piper leaves essential oil, S. mutans, L. kaesal, A. viscosus


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